One of the most difficult problems managers face today is maintaining control, efficiency, and productivity while still giving employees the freedom to be creative, innovative and flexible. Giving employees too much autonomy has led to disaster for many companies, including such well-known names as Sears and Standard Chartered Bank. In these companies and many others, employees had enough independence that they were able to engage in and mask underhanded, and sometimes illegal, activities. When these deviant behaviors finally came to light, the companies incurred substantial losses not only financially, but also in internal company morale and external public relations.
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One method of preventing these kinds of incidents is for companies to revert to the “machinelike bureaucracies” of the 1950s and 60s. In these work environments, employees were given very specific instructions on how to do their jobs and then were watched constantly by superiors to ensure the instructions were carried out properly. In the modern corporate world, this method of managing employees has all but been abandoned except in those industries that lend themselves to standardization and repetition of work activities (e.g., in casinos and on assembly lines). In most industries, managers simply do not have time to watch everyone all the time.
They must find ways to encourage employees to think for themselves, to create new processes and methods, while still retaining enough control to ensure that employee creativity will ultimately benefit and improve the company. There are four control levers or “systems” that can aid managers in achieving the balance between employee empowerment and effective control: 1.
Diagnostic control systems, 2. Bagaimana Cara Mengconnectkan Laptop Tanpa Cd Dengan Printer Canon Fotocopy 287. Beliefs systems, 3. Boundary systems, and 4. Interactive control systems. Diagnostic Control Systems This control lever relies on quantitative data, statistical analyses and variance analyses. Canon Mx310 Scanner Driver Software more. Campbell Biologie Francais Pdf Printer.
Managers use these and other numerical comparisons (e.g., actual to budget, increases/decreases in overhead from month to month, etc.) to periodically scan for anything unusual that might indicate a potential problem. Diagnostic systems can be very useful for detecting some kinds of problems, but they can also induce employees and even managers to behave unethically in order to meet some kind of preset goal.
Meeting the goal, no matter how it’s done, ensures the numbers won’t fluctuate in a manner that would draw negative attention to a particular department or person. Employee bonuses (and sometimes even employment, itself) are often based on how well performance goals have been met or exceeded, measured in quantitative terms. If the goals are reasonable and attainable, the diagnostic system works quite well.
It enables managers to assign tasks and go on to other things, releasing them from the leash of perpetual surveillance. Installer Une Imprimante Canon Sur Ubuntu Wallpaper there. Empowered employees are free to complete their work, under some but not undue pressure to meet a deadline, productivity level, or other goal, and to do it in a way that may be new or innovative. However, when goals become unrealistic, empowered employees may sometimes use their capacity for creativity to manipulate the factors under their control in order not to fall short of their manager’s expectations. Such manipulations can only have very short-term positive effects and can very possibly, depending on their magnitude, lead to long-run disaster for the company. Beliefs Systems This control lever is used to communicate the tenets of corporate culture to every employee of the company. Beliefs systems are generally broad and designed to appeal to many different types of people working in many different departments.
In order for beliefs systems to be an effective lever of control, employees must be able to see key values and ethics being upheld by those in supervisory and other top executive positions. Senior management must be careful not to adopt a particular belief or mission simply because it is in vogue to do so at the time, but because it reflects the true nature and value system of the company as a whole. It is easier for employees to understand on an informal, innate level the mission and credo of a company that operates in only one industry, as did many companies in the past. As companies grow more complex, however, it is becoming more and more necessary to establish formal, written mission statements and codes of ethics so that there can be no mistaking where the company is going and how it is going to get there.